Parliament’s position, structure and functions

As early as 1973, Britain became a member of the European Community, which was supranational, and therefore accepted its laws and regulations as something superior to domestic law in certain areas. By signing the European Convention on Human Rights in 1951 and accepting its optional clause in 1966, Britain gave the European Court of Human Rights a right to review and annul any State act, including a law, which it alleged violated the human rights set forth in this Convention. In these areas, the British Parliament can no longer be a sovereign body.

Upper House – House of Lords

This home has lost its former function in the past, its options have been reduced to the right of a suspended veto of one year (later reduced to half a year) on the bill promulgated by the House of Commons. More recently, demands for the abolition or radical transformation of this institution have become more and more frequent. Suggestions are that the House of Lords should be elected in the future, according to the proportional electoral method, and to be the representative body of the four provinces of the UK.

Lower House – House of Commons

Members are elected every five years by general, direct secret elections. In Scotland, at least 71 MPs are elected, in Wales 35, in Northern Ireland 12, and in England 533. It brings laws, votes on the budget, debates key political issues, and constitutes, or controls the government. The government forms a party that has a majority in the House of Commons, and the mandate for the composition of the government is entrusted to the leader of that party.

Annual sessions last from the end of October to July with interruptions. The average session duration is about 165 days. A quorum is not needed, except during voting. Sessions are held in the famous rectangular Hall of the Westminster Palace. Voting procedure is liberal. It can be an oral pronouncement for or against, standing or sitting in place, or passing through one of the two corridors behind the spokes of the speaker – on the right side of the speaker are those who are for, and on the left, those who are opposed. In addition to the corridor door there are “party whips” who in a more delicate situation warn party members on party loyalty.

The Speaker

They are elected by MPs by a simple majority at the beginning of each new parliament. He is ex officio chairman of the lower house and president of the commission of the constituency. He lives in the Westminster Palace and has 10 associates, officers. He belongs to one of the parties, but He behaves neutrally and does not vote, except in the case of an equal number of votes.